Cryptography is a method of shielding information and communications through the utilization of codes so that only those for whom the information is projected can process it. The word “crypto” means concealed, and the graph stands for inscription.

Cryptography is intimately related to the regulations of cryptology and cryptanalysis. It comprises techniques such as merging words with images and other ways to hide information in storage or transit. In today’s computer-centric human race, cryptography is most habitually connected with scrambling plain text into ciphertext (a procedure called encryption), then back again (acknowledged as decryption). Human beings who practice this are known as cryptographers.

Modern cryptography concerns with the following objectives:


The information cannot be unstated by anyone for whom it was unintended.


The information cannot be modified in storage or transit between the sender and intended receiver devoid of the alteration being detected.


The creator or sender of the information cannot oppose an afterward stage his or her intentions to create or transmit the information.


The sender and receiver can authenticate each other’s identity and the origin OR destination of the information in sequence.

Cryptographic algorithms

Cryptosystems use a position of course of actions known as cryptographic algorithms to encrypt and decrypt messages to safe and sound communications among computer systems, devices such as smartphones, and applications. A cipher group uses one algorithm for encryption, another algorithm for message authentication, and another for key exchange. This method is embedded in a code of behaviors and written in software that dashes on operating systems and networked computer systems. It involves public and private key generation for data encryption or decryption, digital signing, and verification for message authentication key exchange.

The cryptographic fortification of a system against attacks and malicious incursion depends on two dimensions:

(1) The power of the keys and the helpfulness of mechanisms and protocols associated with the keys. 

(2) The keys’ shield through key management, secure key generation, storage, distribution, use, and destruction.

By this, I want to tool shed light on the cryptographic algorithms and aims to provide an executive summary of what is to be judged when choosing cryptographic algorithms to secure and protect a system.

There are three general approved cryptographic algorithms defined by the number or types of cryptographic keys used with each.

Hash functions

A hash function does not use keys for its basic operation. This function creates a small “hash value” from often large amounts of data through no return process.  

Condensing messages for generating and verifying digital signatures

originating keys in key establishment algorithms

Generating deterministic randomly any number

Symmetric-key algorithms

Also, as a secret-key algorithm, a symmetric-key algorithm alters data to make it extremely difficult to view without a secret key.

The key is believed symmetric because it is used for mutually encrypting and decrypting. It provides data privacy by using the same key for encrypting and decrypting data. These keys are used for:

Providing Message Authentication Codes for source and reliability authentication services. The key is used to create the Message Authentication Codes and then to validate them.

Establishing keys for the duration of key establishment processes

Generating deterministic unsystematic numbers

Asymmetric-key algorithms

It is also referred to as public-key algorithms. Asymmetric-key algorithms use paired in the theater of their function. The secretive key cannot be mathematically calculated using the public key even though they are related. They are used for:

Computing the digital signatures

Establishing cryptographic key material

And Identity of Management

Cryptography daily life’ contains various situations where cryptography facilitates the condition of a secure service like cash withdrawal from an ATM, email, and file storage using Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) freeware, secure and protected web browsing, and use of a GSM smartphone. It uses equally symmetric and asymmetric cryptography and a two-level key chain of command in which symmetric session keys are used to protect and secure data, and asymmetric keys are used for mutual signature and the protection of the symmetric session keys.

Future of Cryptography

Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) has already been invented, but its benefits and disadvantages are not yet fully unstated. ECC allows performing encryption and decryption quickly, allowing a higher quantity of data to be passed with equal security. However, as with other techniques and methods of encryption, ECC must be tested and proven secure and safe before it is accepted for commercial and private use.

Quantum computation is the new observable fact. While modern computers store data using binary numbers called a “bit” in which a “1” or a “0” can be accumulated, a quantum computer stores data using a quantum superposition of different multiple states. These multiple-valued states are stored in qubits. This allows the computation of numbers to be more than a few orders of magnitude faster than traditional transistor processors.

Given these particulars, modern cryptography will have to give the impression of being computationally harder problems or devise completely new techniques of achieving the goals currently served by modern cryptography.


The networks have gone worldwide, and information has taken the digital form of bits and bytes. Dangerous information now gets stored, processed, and transmitted in digital form on computer systems and some open communication channels.

Since information plays such a fundamental role, adversaries object to the computer systems and open communication channels to either take sensitive information or interrupt the critical information system.

Modern cryptography provides a healthy set of techniques to ensure that the adversary’s malicious intentions are dissatisfied while ensuring the legitimate users get access to information. 

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